Presented live on October 21st 2020, this webinar provides an overview of the business of compensatory mitigation banking with insight into the risks that factor into the decision to sponsor a bank. Complementary to the presentation on the business of banking is a panel of private bankers and representatives from of credit buying agencies and organizations for a round-table discussion on current issues, emerging trends in credit supply and demand, and overcoming barriers to entering a market or using banking as tool.

It is recommended that participants view Webinar 1: The Market & Regulatory Drivers for Conservation Banking prior to viewing this webinar.





  1. BenDor, T. K., J. A. Riggsbee, M. Doyle. 2011. Risks and markets for ecosystem services. Environ. Sci. and Tech. 45:1032-10330 [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  2. BenDor, T. K., J. A. Riggsbee, G. Howard. 2010. A survey of mitigation banker perceptions and experiences. National Wetlands Newsletter. 32(3):11-15. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  3. Denisoff, C. R. “Business Considerations”. Pp. 109-126, In: N. Carroll, J Fox and R. Bayon (eds). Conservation and Biodiversity Banking: a Guide to Setting up and Running Biodiversity Credit Trading Systems. Earthscan. 2008. 
  4. Denisoff, Craig and Greg DeYoung. “The Challenge of Implementing Market-Based Programs by Regulatory Agencies.” National Wetlands Newsletter, Vol. 33, No. 4 (2011). [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  5. Hook and Shadle. 2013. Navigating Wetland Mitigation Markets: A Study of Risks Facing Entrepreneurs and Regulators.32pp. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  6. Levrel, H., P. Scemama, A-C. Vaissiere. 2017. Should we be wary of mitigation banking? Evidence regarding the risks associated with this offset arrangement in Florida. Ecol. Economics.135: 136-149. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
As the hub of the Balancing Nature & Commerce Community of Practice, this page features new tools, resources, and innovative strategies being implemented across the nation that can support your own efforts! If you’d like to receive news items like these in a periodic e-newsletter, please contact Katie Allen! Please also share your own experiences, exciting accomplishments, and/or resources that may benefit others!

Rural Community Highlight

Haysi, Virginia — Where Your Break Begins

Set in rural southwest Virginia, the gateway to Breaks Interstate Park, Haysi is a little place with a lot going for them.  The Crooked Road Heritage Music Trail, The Virginia Coal Heritage Trail, Rivers to Ridges Artisan Trail, Round the Mountain Artisan Network, 76 Bicycle Route and Great Eastern Trail all link to downtown Haysi as well as many other communities–but yet Haysi was not realizing the potential of having thousands of visitors pass through every year.  

In 2011, The Conservation Fund and the National Trust for Historic Preservation, provided Haysi with a recommendations report for improvements the town can make to bolster tourism development, create jobs, and define a sense of identity. 

Since the assessment, Haysi has been hard at work. They will soon begin work on building facade improvements, streescape improvements and constructions of a Riverfront Trail–all part of their downtown revitalization plan. As a place where all trails converge, the town designated their old theater building as The Russell Fork Trail Center to support the trails and house businesses.

“I have found that its best for us to get involved regionally, working with other localities, agencies to get the most out of the time I have to work on tourism development.” -Mayor of Haysi, Larry Yates

Check out Haysi at their new website:

Funding Opportunities
Are you looking to fund community projects in your area? Check here periodically for an updated list of national funding opportunities that you can use to enhance your rural community.

Publications & Resources
Look here for new publications, websites, and tools that are available to assist you in your rural community’s planning and project delivery.

Are you looking to fund community projects in your area? Check here periodically for an updated list of national funding opportunities that you can use to enhance your rural community.

Children, Youth, and Families At Risk – Sustainable Community Projects
The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), USDA announces the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk funding program to improve the quality and quantity of comprehensive community-based programs for at-risk children, youth, and families supported by the Cooperative Extension System. Application Deadline: April 11, 2014

Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) Discretionary Grants
FY 2013 TIGER Discretionary Grants are for capital investments in surface transportation infrastructure and are to be awarded on a competitive basis for projects that will have a significant impact on the Nation, a metropolitan area, or a region. Larger projects of national or regional significance which DOT determines demonstrate achievement of several of the strategic goals, as well as the project readiness criterion, could be considered for grants larger than those typically awarded in recent rounds of TIGER. Application Deadline: April 28, 2014

Hart Family Fund for Small Towns
Grants from the Hart Family Fund for Small Towns are intended to encourage preservation at the local level by providing seed money for preservation projects in small towns. Grants generally range from $2,500 to $10,000. Application Deadline: May 1, 2014

National Association of Realtors Smart Growth Grants
NAR’s Smart Growth Action Grants support a wide range of land-use related activities. To be considered, activities should support the core purpose of NAR’s Smart Growth Progam: to support realtor engagement in land-use related issues with the primary goals of affecting public policies that support a more sustainable development paradigm while raising the profile of realtors as community leaders and enhancing relationships with elected officials. Application Deadlines: April 30, July 31, and October 15, 2014

Citizens’ Institute on Rural Design (CIRD)
CIRD provides communities access to the resources they need to convert their own good ideas into reality.  CIRD works with communities with populations of 50,000 or less, and offers annual competitive funding to as many as four small towns or rural communities to host a two-and-a-half day community design workshop.  With support from a wide range of design, planning and creative placemaking professionals, the workshops bring together local leaders from non-profits, community organizations, and government to develop actionable solutions to the community’s pressing design challenges. Application Deadline: May 6, 2014

NEA Challenge America Fast-Track
The Challenge America Fast-Track category offers support primarily to small and mid-sized organizations for projects that extend the reach of the arts to under-served populations — those whose opportunities to experience the arts are limited by geography, ethnicity, economics, or disability. Grants are available for professional arts programming and for projects that emphasize the potential of the arts in community development. Application Deadline: May 8, 2014

2015 National Urban and Community Forestry Grant Program
The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council seeks innovative (new, cutting-edge or builds upon existing studies) grant proposals for program development that address the following priority issues: Making Urban Trees and Forests More Resilient ot the Impacts of Natural Disasters and the long-term Impacts of Climate Change, Green Infrastructure Jobs Analysis, Utilizing Green Infrastructure to Manage and Mitigate Stormwater to Improve Water Quality. Application Deadline: May 15, 2014

NEA Art Works
To support the creation of art that meets the highest standards of excellence, public engagement with diverse and excellent art, lifelong learning in the arts, and the strengthening of communities through the arts. Matching grants generally range from $10,000 to $100,000. Application Deadline: July 24, 2014

National Park Service Rivers, Trails & Conservation Assistance Program
Do you have an idea for a local conservation and outdoor recreation project, but need assistance to move that vision into reality? You do not have to be located near a National Park to receive assistance. Application Deadline: August 1, 2014

People For Bikes Community Grant Program
The People for Bikes Community Grant Program provides funding for important and influential projects that leverage federal funding and build momentum for bicycling in communities across the U.S. These projects include bike paths and rail trails, as well as mountain bike trails, bike parks, BMX facilities, and large-scale bicycle advocacy initiatives. Application Deadline: August 1, 2014

Land and Water Conservation Fund State and Local Assistance Program
The National Park Service provides matching grants to states and through states to local government for the acquisition and development of land and water for outdoor recreation purposes. Application Deadline: August 22, 2014

State Historic Preservation Opportunity Historic Preservation Fund Grants
To provide matching grants to States for the identification, evaluation, and protection of historic properties by such means as survey, planning technical assistance, acquisition, development, and certain Federal tax incentives available for historic properties.  Application Deadline: December 31, 2014

HUD Choice Neighborhood Implementation Grants
Applications must propose to plan for the revitalization of a severely distressed public and/or HUD-assisted multifamily housing project located in a distressed neighborhood into a viable, mixed-income community. Individual grants may be for up to a maximum of $500,000. Applications Deadline: CHECK BACK FOR 2015 DEADLINE

NEA Our Town
Organizations may apply for creative placemaking projects that contribute to the livability of communities and place the arts at their core. An organization may request a grant amount from $25,000 to $200,000. Application Deadline: CHECK BACK FOR 2015 DEADLINE

American Hiking Society’s National Trails Fund
American Hiking Society’s National Trails Fund is the only privately funded, national grants program dedicated solely to building and protecting hiking trails. Grants value between $500 to $5,000 to improve hiking access or hiker safety. Application Deadline: CHECK BACK FOR 2015 DEADLINE


Presented live on November 5, 2020, this webinar provides an overview of regulatory guidance for selecting mitigation sites and the best practices used by bankers to select suitable sites for meeting mitigation requirements. The session also reviews the suite of site protection mechanisms needed to minimize risk and create durable and successful mitigation banks.

It is recommended that participants view Webinar 1: The Market & Regulatory Drivers for Conservation Banking prior to viewing this webinar.



Matt Gause, Westervelt Ecological Services (
Valerie Layne, US Army Corps of Engineers Institute for Water Resources (
Michelle Mattson, US Army Corps of Engineers Institute for Water Resources (
Deblyn Mead, Bureau of Land Management (
Clint Miller, The Conservation Fund (
Jeff Phillips, US Fish & Wildlife Service (
Veronica Rowan, DOI Office of the Solicitor (

Webinar Materials:


  1. Bean, Kihslinger, Wilkinson. “Design of U.S. Habitat Banking Systems to Support the Conservation of Wildlife Habitat and At-Risk Species” ELI, February 2008. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  2. Kiesecker, et. al. 2009. A Framework for Implementing Biodiversity Offsets: Selecting Sites and Determining Scale. BioScience 59(1):77-84. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  3. USFWS. “Strategic Habitat Conservation Handbook: A Guide to Implementing the Technical Elements of Strategic Habitat Conservation” Version 1.0, Feb. 11, 2008. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  4. USFWS. Strategic Habitat Conservation: Selecting Surrogate Species for Conservation Planning and Design, Fact Sheet, March 2013. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  5. USFWS. “The Right Science in the Right Places: Landscape Conservation Cooperatives” December 2009. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  6. USFWS, et al. “Eco-Logical: An Ecosystem Approach to Developing Infrastructure Projects” April 2006. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  7. Wilkinson, McElfish, Kihslinger, Bendick, McKenney. “The Next Generation of Mitigation: Linking Current and Future Mitigation Programs with State Wildlife Action Plans and Other State and Regional Plans” ELI, August 2009. [DOWNLOAD PDF]

Web Resources:

Site Protection RESOURCES:

  1. Johnson, B. S. Five tips to expedite regulatory review of conservation easements. National Wetland Newsletter. Mar-Apr 2016. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  2. O’Donnell, M. K. 2016. What title reveals that the land itself cannot. Savingland. Land Trust Alliance newsletter. Summer 2016: 24-27. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  3. Raffini, Eric. “Mineral rights and banking.” National Wetlands Newsletter. Vol. 34 No. 5, 2012. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  4. Terzi, Gail. “The Lummi Nation wetland and habitat bank: restoring a piece of history.” National Wetlands Newsletter. Vol. 34 No. 6, 2012.  [DOWNLOAD PDF]

“Thriving, Not Just Surviving”

Over the past 15 years, The Conservation Fund’s Conservation Leadership Network has offered assistance specifically to gateway communities through our Balancing Nature and Commerce Program. Our goal is help these communities forge solutions for both conservation and economic development goals.

The program offers national and place-based workshops, resources and different types of community assessments as well as a community of practice for participating communities. Click on the links below to learn more about our program offerings. 


The program is comprised of national and place-based workshops that focus on the economics, community character, natural resources and partnership building skills necessary for creating sustainable communities. Please contact CLN if you would like to set up a workshop for your community.  Or, view our upcoming course list to find out if there is a workshop scheduled.

Livability and Sustainable Tourism Assessments

The Balancing Nature and Commerce workshops also facilitate livability and sustainable tourism assessments that provide evaluation and recommendations for existing and future nature-based and cultural heritage tourism opportunities. In addition, participants are introduced to trends in sustainable agriculture, alternative transportation and renewable energy.  Learn more >>

Community of Practice

Check out the hub page for our Balancing Nature & Commerce Community of Practice, featuring new tools, resources and innovative strategies being implemented across the nation that can support your own efforts. Visit Community of Practice >> 

Publications & Resources

We provide a list of new publications, websites and tools to assist you in your community’s planning and project delivery.  Learn more >> 

Funding Opportunities

Are you looking to fund community projects in your area? Check here periodically for an updated list of national funding opportunities that you can use to enhance your community. Learn more >>

Success Stories

Check out Our Projects to learn about how our Balancing Commerce and Nature Program has helped these communities thrive.

You can also view this video by the PA Wilds team, who attended both a national and place-based workshop back in 2007.  Learn about their progress and inspire your own community team!

Download the Balancing Nature and Commerce brochure here. 


Presented live on December 2, 2020 this webinar provides an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the mitigation review team (MRT) and other banking partners during the instrument development, implementation, and management phases of a bank. Best practices on how active operations and management can minimize risk and increase the success of banks in meeting all mitigation compliance requirements are shared.

It is recommended that participants view Webinar 1: The Market & Regulatory Drivers for Conservation Banking prior to viewing this webinar.



Charlotte Kucera, US Fish & Wildlife Service (
Valerie Layne, US Army Corps of Engineers Institute of Water Resources (
Veronica Rowan, DOI Office of the Solicitor (

Webinar Materials:

Operations & Management Resources:

  1. California Multi-Agency Project Delivery Team. Cover Sheet: Mitigation Banking Proposal Procedures & Checklists, September 2010.
  2. California Multi-Agency Project Delivery Team. Memorandum of Understanding Concerning Mitigation and Conservation Banking in California, 2011. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  3. Gardner, Roy and Teresa Radwan, “Corporate Shell Games: LLPs, LLCs & Responsibility for Mitigation Sites” National Wetland Newsletter 31(6): 2009. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  4. USFWS Sacramento Office. Annual Reporting Checklist, updated. [DOWNLOAD PDF]

Oversight & Compliance Resources:

  1. Gardner, Royal. “Mitigation banking and reputational risk.” National Wetlands Newsletter. Vol. 34 No. 6. 2012. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  2. Owley, Jessica. Keeping Track of Conservation. Ecology Law Quarterly, 2015. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
Look here for new publications, websites, and tools that are available to assist you in your rural community’s planning and project delivery.

About Town: Building Revenue for Communities
Financial strain can be a burden on local governments, but it can also be a force for change, encouraging officials to streamline operations, reduce waste, and seek reliable ways to build stable revenues while spurring economic growth. This report takes a look at six rural communities in the Rocky Mountain West which recognize the value of downtowns and mixed use centers, which are bringing excellent revenue to these cities and counties.

Archived Webinars from the American Farmland Trust
Food systems planning is an emerging field to support, facilitate and promote local, regional and sustainable agriculture. The American Farmland Trust has put together a series of educational webinars to take a look at systems approaches for county and community-based planning, and state and regional planning to improve and maintain agricultural viability.

Asset-Based Economic Development and Building Sustainable Rural Communities

This series of three ICMA briefing papers showcase how small communities are tackling sustainability and smart growth through asset-based economic development. The first paper defines asset-based economic development and provides several case studies on industry and industrial clusters. The second paper looks as natural resource strengths and working landscapes. The third paper examines historic and cultural resources as well as existing infrastructure such as Main Streets and town squares.

Investment Ready Places: A Field Guide to Community Building in the New American Frontier
The small towns and cities of America are once again becoming the new frontier for development. Investment Ready Places are those communities that are well positioned to respond to retooling. The report lists six characteristics of Investment Ready Places that need to be in place to attract productive investments and steps communities can use to acquire these characteristics.

Economic Profile System-Human Dimensions Tool Kit from Headwaters Economics
The updated Economic Profile System-Human Dimensions Toolkit (EPS-HDT) helps decision makers access and analyze large amounts of information about their community or anywhere in the United States. EPS-HDT was created jointly by Headwaters Economics, the Bureau of Land Management, and the US Forest Service.

Federal Resources for Sustainable Rural Communities
A guide to programs from the Partnership for Sustainable Communities and the USDA that rural communities can use to promote economic competitiveness, protect healthy environments, and enhance quality of life.

Lasting Value: Open Space Planning and Preservation Successes
More than one million acres of forests, farms, and other rural lands are converted to development every year. Can preservation happen? Yes, but its no walk in the park. Lasting Value celebrates the selected cities, towns, and counties that excel at preserving natural areas, farmland, and other types of open space.

Livability Literature Review: A Synthesis of Current Practice
This comprehensive report from the National Association of Regional Councils (NARC) describes how livability is understood, provides examples of livable communities in practice and adds clarity to several concepts.

Locally Owned Businesses Can Help Communities Thrive And Survive Climate Change
Cities where small, locally owned businesses account for a relatively large share of the economy have stronger social networks, more engaged citizens, and better success solving problems, according to several recently published studies. And in the face of climate change, those are just the sort of traits that communities most need if they are to survive massive storms, adapt to changing conditions, find new ways of living more lightly on the planet, and, most important, nurture a vigorous citizenship that can drive major changes in policy.

Making Healthy Places: Designing and Building for Health, Well-being, and Sustainability
This book provides a far-reaching follow-up to the pathbreaking Urban Sprawl and Public Health, published in 2004, offering a fresh and comprehensive look at the adverse effects of what we have constructed and the positive benefits of well designed build environments.  Edited by Andrew L. Dannenberg, Howard Frumkin, and Richard J. Jackson.

Model Design Manual for Living Streets
This manual focuses on all users and all modes, seeking to achieve balanced street design that accommodates cars while ensuring that pedestrians, cyclists and transit users can travel safely and comfortably. This manual also incorporates features to make streets lively, beautiful, economically vibrant as well as environmentally sustainable.

Outdoor Nation Special Report: Technology and Social Media
Outdoor Nation Special Report: Technology and Social Media provides an in-depth analysis of how the Outdoor Nation community of young ‘Outsiders” is interacting with social media and technology. The report gives the youth perspective on ways that technology can both enhance and interfere with outdoor activities. The survey offers youth-driven ideas on how to best combine outdoor experiences, social media and technology.

Promoting Physical Activity through the Shared Use of School & Community Recreational Resources
This brief summarizes research on community access to school sport and recreation facilities outside of school hours, as well as studies that examine the shared use of school facilities and programs with other community groups or agencies. It also describes challenges commonly associated with the shared use of recreational facilities and opportunities for policy-makers at the state and local levels. 

Putting Smart Growth to Work in Rural Communities
This report, the result of collaboration between EPA and the International City/County Management Association (ICMA), focuses on smart growth strategies that can help guide growth in rural areas while protecting natural and working lands and preserving the rural character of existing communities.

Regional Approaches to Sustainable Development: Linking Economic, Transportation, and Environmental Infrastructure in Rural and Small Metropolitan America
Regional development organizations (RDOs) are designing and implementing strategies to create stronger, more dynamic, more resilient regional economies that are based on quality of place. This report from the National Association of Development Organizations highlights the opportunities available to RDOs to undertake sustainable development initiatives using a systems-based approach.

Rural Communities: Expanding Horizons
Learn more about the great strides that have been made in the last decade to provide more transportation choices for residents of small urban and rural areas. This report highlights the opportunities for continued innovation, public transit investment, and political and community support to provide freedom, independence, and access through public transportation. 

Stewarding the Future of Our Communities
This major research project conducted for the Craig Byrne Fellows Program of the Orton Family Foundation addresses the challenges of stewarding local community engagement and planning–that is, building greater sustainability into citizen-driven, value-based community engagement and planning–in order to ensure its ongoing success and impact. Five exemplary community engagement and planning experiences in small towns and cities around the country are highlighted to provide specific stewardship approaches they have used to carry the success of their efforts far into the future.

Strategic Lessons In Sustainable Community Building–The Groundwork USA Network
A growing number of communities across the country are leveraging greening initiatives  as catalysts for the social and economic regeneration of urban neighborhoods. Urban greening provides underserved neighborhoods with access to green spaces that improve overall quality of life and begin to address long-standing health and economic disparities of its residents.

Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities
This new report helps better coordinate federal programs for sustainable community and smart growth development for rural communities. The report was prepared by the HUD, DOT, and EPA Partnership for Sustainable Communities in cooperation with USDA. It presents sample funding mechanisms, technical assistance opportunities, and performance measures rural communities can use, and includes case studies showcasing rural accomplishments.

Three Years of Helping Communities Achieve Their Visions for Growth and Prosperity
This report provides an overview of EPA, HUD, and DOT support to communities seeking to protect the environment, provide more housing choices, and make transportation systems more efficient and reliable.  Case studies include: Bridgeport, CT; Ranson and Charles Town, WV; Montgomery, AL; Cincinnati, OH; Moline, IL; Denver, CO: and Wellpinit, WA.

Vibrant Rural Communities Case Studies Series
The National Association of Development Association’s Vibrant Rural Communities case studies series highlights how rural regions and small towns across the country are growing local and regional economies and creating stronger communities. This series shows how small towns can leverage a wide range of tools and approaches to build on their assets, protect their resources, and make strategic investments that offer long-term benefits for residents and local businesses.

This series of 12 case studies was developed for the Conservation Banking Training, offered annually by The Conservation Fund. These case studies profile approved and operational conservation banks from around the country. Appendices for each case study are available upon request; please contact

Documents are PDF downloads. 

The Conservation Leadership Network (CLN) will be strengthening livability capacity in at least four communities (see list below) starting in fall 2013 as part of the Federal Lands Livability Initiative. Through a partnership with the Federal Lands Livability Workgroup, comprised of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Park Service (NPS) and other land management agencies, CLN will assess trends in livability associated with federal public lands and their surrounding gateway communities. This initiative includes a mix of public lands, refuges, forests and parks from a geographic and demographic cross section of the country.

What Is A Gateway Community?

CO-Grand-Lake-downtown-rikdom-Flickr-300x200Grand Lake, Colorado, is one of the gateway communities participating in the initiative. Photo by rikdom/Flickr. America’s gateway communities are places adjacent to our public lands  that attract visitors and residents looking for unique recreational and cultural experiences. These communities face unique challenges—such as how to protect the assets that make them special and appealing—and often must work together with their public land partners to overcome these challenges. CLN has worked with gateway communities for more than a decade through its Balancing Nature and Commerce Program. This program has shown time and again that when local government officials, public land managers and community residents have the opportunity to talk about issues related to local land use, economic development and nature-based tourism, they can find a common way forward that fosters community development while also promoting public land and the outdoors.

What Is “Livability”?

SC-Calhoun-Falls-Richard-B-Russell-Lake-fishing-ACE-300x200The annual Kid’s Fishing Derby at Richard B. Russell Lake in Calhoun, South Carolina. Photo by Army Corps of Engineers/Flickr. The term “livability” refers to the quality and location of transportation facilities in relation to broader opportunities such as access to good jobs, affordable housing, quality schools and safe streets. 

The Six Principles of Livability defined by the U.S. departments of Transportation, Housing and Urban Development and the Environmental Protection Agency Partnership for Sustainable Communities include: 

  1. Provide more transportation choices. 
  2. Promote equitable, affordable housing. 
  3. Enhance economic competitiveness. 
  4. Support existing communities. 
  5. Coordinate policies and leverage investment. 
  6. Value communities and neighborhoods.

Learn more about Livability >> 

The Initiative: Livability Assessments & Workshops

OR-Sweet-Home-Weddle-Bridge-Sandy-Horvath-Dori-Flickr-300x200Weddle Bridge in Sweet Home, Oregon. Photo by Sandy Horvath-Dori/Flickr This fall, members of the CLN team, together with local representatives and a local design team, will visit and conduct a livability assessment in each of the communities selected for the initiative.

Based on this on-the-ground assessment, the team will provide a livability status report to each community. By assessing these diverse gateway communities, the team hopes to draw general conclusions and lessons about how best to create and improve livability standards in these and other gateway communities.  

Once the livability assessment report is provided to the communities, CLN will set up workshops, unique to each community, that will allow residents and local officials to meet with representatives from their neighboring public lands.  “It’s our goal to help communities foster valuable partnerships,” says Kris Hoellen, vice president of sustainable programs for the Fund and CLN director. These workshops aim to help build an action plan based on the evaluation of the community’s key livability factors, which may include the strength of community character, as well as the accessibility to transportation, affordable housing, employment and business opportunities. 

Selected Communities

An interagency selection committee comprised of representatives from the
USFWS, NPS, FHWS, USFS and BLM selected public lands and their gateway
communities to participate in this initiative. These include: Map-Federal-Lands-Livability-Fin-645x430


Community: Grand Lake
Managing Agency: National Park Service
Federal Land: Rocky Mountain National Park
Other Public Lands:  Arapaho National Recreation Area (USFS)/ Arapaho Roosevelt National Forest (USFS)/ BLM lands/ Bureau of Reclamation
Read the full Grand Lake Gateway Community Livability Assessment Report (PDF) 


Community: Spaulding and James townships, Saginaw City
Managing Agency: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Federal Land: Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge
Other Public Lands:  Green Point Environmental Learning Center (USFWS)/ Shiawassee River State Game Area (MIDNR)/ Saginaw Township public boat launch/ Saginaw Valley Rail Trail (Saginaw County)
Read the full Saginaw and Surrounding Townships Gateway Community Livability Assessment Report (PDF)


Community: Sweet Home
Managing Agency: U.S. Forest Service
Federal Land: Willamette National Forest
Other Public Lands:  Foster Reservoir (USACE)/ Green Peter Reservoir (USACE)/ BLM lands/ Cascadia State Park/ Sunnyside County Park/ Riverbend Campground/ Sweet Home City Parks (7)
Read the full Sweet Home Gateway Community Livability Assessment Report (PDF)

South Carolina

Community: Calhoun Falls
Managing Agency: Army Corps of Engineers
Federal Land: Richard B. Russell Dam and Lake Project
Other Public Lands:  Parsons Mountain Recreation Area (USFS)/ Hartwell Project (USACE)/ J. Strom Thurmond Project (USACE)/ SCDNR, SCDPRT Lands
Read the full Calhoun Falls Gateway Community Livability Assessment Report (PDF)

Conservation (Species) Mitigation Banking

As a component of the annually-offered Conservation Banking Training course, we developed a series of twelve case studies.

Resources for the 8-part webinar series being offered from October 2020 – January 2021 can be found here. This series is designed to provide an introduction to foundational topics related to conservation banking for endangered species and habitat recovery, as well as joint authority programs that mitigate for impacts to wetlands and streams.

Third Party Wetland and Stream Mitigation Banking

Complementary to the annually-offered 3rd Party Mitigation Interagency Review Team (IRT) Training course, presentations and resources associated with the course are available.

Sustainable Tourism & Livability AssessmentsThe Conservation Fund’s Conservation Leadership Network works with communities across the country to provide assessments of an area’s natural, cultural and historic assets and evaluate opportunities to sustainably develop these assets predicated on livability principles.

Sustainable Tourism Assessments

As part of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) and the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) program, The Appalachian Gateway Initiative: Natural and Cultural Heritage Tourism Development, The Conservation Fund and The National Trust for Historic Preservation were retained to assist communities in enhancing natural, recreational, arts and historic assets in order to create sustainable tourism programs.  Since 2007, this program has conducted six assessments and developed recommendations reports for each.  See a few of these reports below:

Other Sustainable Tourism Intiatives:

The Conservation Fund worked specifically with the community of Unicoi, Tennessee to help them achieve a vibrant community by enhancing their natural, recreational, cultural and historic assets.  As a result, The Conservation Fund developed a Sustainable Tourism Initiative for the county that provides a recommendation report for implementation of a sustainable tourism plan.

Read the Sustainable Tourism Initiative here >> (PDF)

Livability Assessments

The Conservation Leadership Network will be strengthening livability capacity in five communities starting in 2013.  Through a partnership with the Federal Lands Livability Workgroup comprised of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Park Service (NPS) and other land management agencies, we will assess trends in livability associated with federal lands and their surrounding gateway communities, including identifying transferable lessons learned, and providing specific recommendations/action plans for moving forward. The initiative expects to include a broad mix of public lands, refuges, forests, and parks, from a geographic and demographic cross-section of the country.

Read more about Livability and this initiative here >>

Read the full Grand Lake Gateway Community Livability Assessment Report (PDF) here >>

Teaching Kids About Carbon, Farming & The Environment

Download Available!

Download Moving Freight: Economy and Atmosphere school curriculum. (PDF)
Suitable for Grades 3-12.

CSX Final-Curriculum-illustration-390x260Graphic by JS Design StudioIn 2012, The Conservation Fund’s Conservation Leadership Network partnered with the international transportation company CSX to sponsor the creation of Moving Freight: Economy and Atmosphere, a curriculum unit to educate school-age students that the train tracks they drive over and the trucks they pass on the highway are connected to a world-wide web of industry, culture, commerce and environmental impact.

The curriculum is designed to provide four activities that build with increasing complexity—or provide the option to be used as stand-alone modules—to help meet curricular goals in mathematics, economics and science.  Students from grades 3-12 will compare and contrast the efficiency of freight transportation in ships, trains, trucks, and airplanes using real-world examples and explore tools and resources on the internet.  Students will also discover the carbon cycle and the impacts of burning fossil fuels on the environment coupled with a comparison of calculated carbon footprints of freight transportation modes.

Additionally, CSX partners with many youth organizations including Future Farmers of America (FFA), a national organization preparing future generations to meet the challenges of the science, business, and art of agriculture.  For agriculture education with the FFA and school programs across the nation, we also developed an activity that investigates the carbon footprint of transporting the raw agricultural materials from farms to processing factories and finally to each student.  This activity demonstrates how raw goods comprise many of our everyday products and that the transportation of each of these materials emits carbon dioxide which adds to the impact of greenhouse gases. That impact reinforces the importance of efficient fuel consumption.

The Conservation Fund recognizes the shared values that CSX is striving to support through their National Gateway program: their desire to educate states and communities to efficiently and economically create safer, less congested roadways, bolster environmental health, and promote economic growth.  The Fund works on the ground across the country to help partners like CSX fulfill their conservation priorities through creative initiatives such as this in order to protect and enhance landscapes where Americans work, play, and rediscover history. 
Below are course offerings organized by Training Tracks. To see list of courses currently scheduled, go to Upcoming Courses.

Green Infrastructure:

*regional offering available upon request!

  • GI 101: Strategic Conservation Planning Using a Green Infrastructure Approach
  • GI 201: Implementing Green Infrastructure at Multiple Scales
  • Green Infrastructure and Municipal Water Management
  • Planning for Climate Change Using Green Infrastructure
  • GIS Tools for Strategic Conservation Planning

Rural Economic Development:

*regional offering available upon request!

  • Balancing Nature and Commerce in Rural Communities and Landscapes
  • Compatible Land Use Planning for Military Installations
  • Broadcast: How to Start a Sustainable Tourism Program
  • Broadcast: Keys to Success in Gateway Communities

Compensatory Mitigation Banking:

*regional offering available upon request!

  • Training Course for Wetland & Stream Mitigation Banking & In-Lieu Program Inter-agency Review Teams (IRTs)
  • Conservation (Species) Banking Training Course


Presented live on December 8, 2020, this webinar provides a nuts and bolts review of how the type and number of credits are determined for a conservation bank and how the extent of the service area is determined. For each topic, case studies ranging from the straight-forward to the complicated are shared, along with lessons-learned and emerging trends from the field. Striking the balance between ecological and economic needs is discussed from diverse perspectives. 

It is recommended that participants view Webinar 1: The Market & Regulatory Drivers for Conservation Banking prior to viewing this webinar.

Webinar #5 Recording


Scott Chiavacci, US Geological Survey (
Greg DeYoung, Westervelt Ecological Services (
Stephanie Ehinger, NOAA National Marine Fisheries (
Dana Herman, US Fish & Wildlife Service (
Michelle Mattson, US Army Corps of Engineers Institute for Water Resources (
Deblyn Mead, Bureau of Land Management (

Webinar Materials:

Service Area Determination Presentations:

  • Mattson: USACE Approach (PDF)
  • Herman: USFWS Approach (PDF)

Credit Determination Presentations:

  • Mead: Overview (PDF)
  • DeYoung: Westervelt Case Studies (PDF)
  • Ehinger: NMFS Case Studies (PDF)
  • Chiavacci: USGS Quantification Tools (PDF)

Service Area Resources:

  1. Amato, Brumbaugh, DeYoung, et. al. “Service area discussion.” National Wetlands Newsletter. Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 9-17. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  2. Denisoff. Reconciling Watersheds and Ecoregions: What’s in a Number? National Wetlands Newsletter 33(1), 2011. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  3. Womble, P. and M. Doyle. The Geography of Trading Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of Wetland and Stream Compensatory Mitigation Markets. Harvard Env. Law Review. 36:229-296 + app. [DOWNLOAD PDF]

Credit Determination Resources:

  1. Chiavacci, Scott F. and Emily Pindilli. A Database of Biodiversity and Habitat Quantification Tools Used in Market-Based Conservation. USGS Science and Decisions Center and USDA Office of Environmental Markets Fact Sheet. July 2018. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  2. Chiavacci, Scott F. and Emily Pindilli. Trends in Biodiversity and Habitat Quantification Tools Used for Market-Based Conservation in the United States. Conservation Biology, February 2020. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  3. NOAA Damage Assessment and Restoration Program. Habitat Equivalency Analysis: An Overview, May 2006. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  4. Pindilli, Emily and Frank Casey. Biodiversity and Habitat Markets – Policy, Economic and Ecological Implications of Market-Based Conservation. USGS Circular 1414, 2015. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  5. Willamette Partnership. Measuring Up: Synchronizing Biodiversity Measurement Systems for Markets and Other Incentive Programs. Report to USDA, 2011. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  6. Zambello, Erika, Lydia Olander, Emma Glidden-Lyon, Emily Meza, and Jessica Wilkinson. “Trends in Measuring Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function in Mitigation Quantification Methodologies.” NI-WP 19-01. Durham, NC: Duke University, 2018. [DOWNLOAD PDF]

Web Resources:


Presented live on January 13, 2021, this webinar discusses the roles and responsibilities of bank sponsors and long-term stewards in developing and implementing management plans and the stewardship funding mechanism(s) needed to ensure continued mitigation compliance. Topics include cost analysis of long-term management practices, adaptive management, and key needs of the third-party land steward to adequately fund management activities in perpetuity.

It is recommended that participants view Webinar 1: The Market & Regulatory Drivers for Conservation Banking prior to viewing this webinar. 

Webinar #6 Recording


Matt Gause, Westervelt Ecological Services (
Clint Miller, The Conservation Fund (

Webinar Materials:

Long-Term Management Resources:

  1. DeYoung, Greg and Steve Moore. 2016. Long-Term Stewardship Funding and Mitigation Industry Sustainability. National Wetlands Newsletter. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  2. Franklin, Helinski, Manale: “Using Adaptive Management to Meet Conservation Goals” Sept. 2007. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  3. Lyons, Runge, Laskowski, Kendall: “Monitoring in the Context of Structured Decision-Making and Adaptive Management,” 2008. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  4. Miller. “Climate Change and Adaptive Management: The intersection of dynamic natural and anthropogenic processes with the practical needs of conservation management,” September 2008. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  5. Rist, L., A. Felton, L. Samuelsson, C. Sandström, and O. Rosvall. A new paradigm for adaptive management. Ecology and Society, 2013. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  6. Salafsky, Margoluis, Redford: “Adaptive Management: A Tool for Conservation Practitioners” 2001. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  7. USFWS. Writing Refuge Management Goals and Objectives: A Handbook. [DOWNLOAD PDF]

Web Resources:

Long-Term Stewardship Financing Resources:

  1. DiCintio, Tim. “Notes on Funding Approaches for Long-Term Property Management”. National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  2. Teresa, Sherry. “The Demise of the Environmental Trust,” 2006. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  3. Teresa, Sherry. “Perpetual Stewardship Considerations for Compensatory Mitigation and Mitigation Banks.” Stetson Law Review Vol. 38, 2009. [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  4. The Nature Conservancy (TNC). The Long-Term Stewardship Calculator Accompanying Handbook. 2016. [DOWNLOAD PDF]

Web Resources:

Alternatives to Conservation Banking (Part I) – Emerging Applications of Multiple Authority Mitigation

Presented live on January 27, 2021, this webinar -- the first of a two-part mini-series on alternative compensatory mitigation tools -- features a survey of emerging applications of multiple authority mitigation to support the recovery of species and habitats in new and exciting ways. 

It is recommended that participants view Webinar 1: The Market & Regulatory Drivers for Conservation Banking prior to viewing this webinar.

WEBINAR #7 Recording:


Megan Callahan Grant, NOAA Restoration Center (
Shauna Everett, US Fish & Wildlife Service (
Deblyn Mead, Bureau of Land Management (



  1. American Forest Foundation. “Voluntary Gopher Tortoise Habitat Crediting System” Fact Sheet [DOWNLOAD PDF]

Web Resources

Alternatives to Conservation Banking (Part II) – Programmatic Approaches To Mitigation

Presented live on February 4, 2021, this webinar -- second of a two-part mini-series on alternative compensatory mitigation tools -- includes an in-depth look at programmatic approaches such as In-Lieu Fee (ILF) programs and how they are different than banks and when to use them. The session looks at examples from across the country and discusses key lessons learned.

It is recommended that participants view Webinar 1: The Market & Regulatory Drivers for Conservation Banking prior to viewing this webinar.

WEBINAR #8 Recording:


Shauna Everett, US Fish & Wildlife Service (
Jennifer Oelke Farley, US DOD Naval Facilities Engineering Command (
Jeff Phillips, US Fish & Wildlife Service (
Heather Richards, The Conservation Fund (



  1. Doyle, M. W. Financial and environmental risks of in-lieu fee programs for compensatory mitigation. NI Report 19-1. Durham, NC. Duke University, 2019 [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  2. ELI and Stetson Law. ILF Mitigation: Review of Program Instruments and Implementation Across the Country. 2019 [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  3. Stephenson, K. and B. Tutko. 2016. The role of In-Lieu Fee programs in providing off-site compensatory mitigation. Final Report for Office of Environmental Markets, USDA. 32 pp [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  4. USFWS. Range Wide IBAT and Northern Long-eared Bat ILF Revised User Guide 2019 [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  5. USFWS Northeast Region. Better Conservation More Efficiently: A Guide for Federal Agency Compliance with Section 7(a)(1) of the Endangered Species Act. January 2018 [DOWNLOAD PDF]
  6. USFWS Southeast Region. Endangered Species Act Section 7(a)(1) Southeast Region Implementation Framework: Promoting Conservation through Interagency Cooperation. March 2018 [DOWNLOAD PDF]

Web Resources: